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Karl Heinrich Marx (German: Karl Heinrich Marx, May 5, 1818 - March 14, 1883), one of the founders of Marxism, the organizer and leader of the first international A great mentor for the proletariat and working people all over the world. The spiritual leader of the proletariat, the pioneer of the international communist movement.
Marx is a great German thinker, politician, philosopher, economist, revolutionist and sociologist. The main works are "Capital", "Communist Manifesto" and so on.
Marx founded the well-known philosophical thought as historical materialism, its greatest wish is for the individual's comprehensive and free development. Marx founded the great economic theory. In his personal terms, his great work is "Capital", and Marx established his principles of elaboration as "Critique of Political Economy". Marx believes that this is the "political economy principle" thing, this is the "essence", and later people can continue to study on this basis.
Marx argues that the demise of the bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat are equally unavoidable. He and Engels co-founded the Marxist doctrine, is considered to guide the working people around the world to achieve the socialist and communist great ideals of the struggle of the theoretical weapons and action guide.
Marx was born on May 5, 1818 in the German Federal Prussian kingdom Rhine province (belonging to the German Rhineland-Palatinate) Terry City, a lawyer family. His grandfather Rabbin Marc Levy was a Jewish law jurist, his father, Hirsch Karl Marx, later renamed Heinrich Marx, born in 1782, with Dutch Jewish woman Henriette Presborck married, gave birth to many children, but found in a document of the heir, only Karl Marx and three daughters Sofia, Emir, Luisa survived.
In October 1830, Marx entered Trier Middle School. After graduating from high school, enter the University of Bonn, 18 years after the transfer to the University of Berlin to study the law, but most of his focus is on the philosophy and history. In 1840, the Prussian New King Frederick William IV ascended the throne, persecuted Liberal Democrats, demanding that all publications must pass a rigorous review, the university lost academic freedom, and the new king appointed the University of Berlin professor FWvon Schelling would review the , But the position of Marx's scholar in philosophy is higher than the theological position can not be accepted by the anti-Hegelian professor, so Marx will be sent to the doctoral thesis to the Saxony - Weimar - Eisenach Grand Duchy of the University of Jena ( Jena) examines doctoral qualifications. In 1841 Marx applied for a degree from the distinction between the natural philosophy of Democritus and the natural philosophy of Epicurus, and successfully received the PhD in the University of Jena from the unanimous approval of the committee. After graduation as "Rheinland" editor, met in the history of Marx thought quite famous "forest theft problem".
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution swept through Germany, which promoted the development of the economy of the country's Junke landlords, and also exacerbated the extreme poverty of the lower working people. Hunger drives the poor to pick up dead branches in the forest, picking wild fruits, and some even break the hunting grounds and ranches. Although the 1826 "Prussian Penal Code" on the unauthorized logging and theft of trees severely punished, but the incident is still increasing. And many people do so in order to be sent to the detention center to receive a prison rations, it is hunger and homeless to force people to violate the forest management regulations.
In 1836, there were 150,000 people who were subject to criminal penalties in Prussia, accounting for 77 per cent of all criminal cases. In the face of this rather serious social situation, the Prussian rulers did not find the root of the problem and the solution to the problem from the social system level. Instead, it introduced a tougher bill that would pick up dead branches in the forest, Some other violations of the forest management regulations have also been upgraded to theft and criminal penalties. According to the record of the Sixth Rheinland Parliament in 1841, in October the following year, the article "Debate on the Forest Burglary Law" was written to condemn the legislature's favor of the interests of the owners of the trees, to deprive the poor of the right to pick up dead branches, To put forward their own view of forest legislation.
The Prussian government was very angry at the views expressed by the Rheinische Zeitung, who immediately sent a seizure of the Rheinland newspaper to force it to stop printing. Marx angrily resigned from the editorial duties of the newspaper. Marx did not regret his own actions, on the contrary, he recognized the government's ugly. He is looking for the opportunity to continue to resolutely fight against the government.
1843 "Rheinische" issue license was revoked by King Prussia, because Marx published in the newspaper criticized the Russian czar article, triggering the dissatisfaction of the Russian Tsar Nicholas I, King of Prussia received a protest after the arrest of the ban Reported that Marx was unemployed. During this period, Marx met Friedrich Engels. Engels is the owner of the factory owner is very much appreciate the idea of Marx, often money to sponsor Marx's activities and life, Marx to do learning seriously serious but life with nature, often delayed to the newspaper to the manuscript, Engels often help Marx's work and pens Some articles.
February 14, 1814, Yanni Marx was born in Teller a famous family. Yanni Marx (February 12, 1814 - December 2, 1881, formerly known as Johanna "Jenny" · Bernard Jolie von Weston Warren (Johanna "Jenny" Bertha Julie von Westphalen) is A German sociologist, who is only a few minutes away from the home of Marx.
In the late summer of 1836, at the University of Bonn, the first year of the study of Marx, back to Terrier to his girlfriend to marry him. Yanni and 18-year-old Marx agreed for life. In accordance with the custom at that time, this is unprecedented. Aristocratic birth, the daughter of Yan Ni, was recognized as the most beautiful girl and the "Queen of the Queen", many handsome aristocratic youth dumping, suitors who lack some people, no doubt, you can conclude a glory Wealthy marriage. But she is contempt for all the traditional concept of society, without the knowledge of their parents to promise to a citizen of the community, she can not predict and Marx's future life how to live. Marx thought that he could not marry Yanni in front of his father, Yan Ni's father, as a temporary adviser. So at first he could only reveal his secret to his father. He believes that his father will be in front of the parents of Jenny for a successful pro-ready for a variety of preparations.
In October 1836, Marx moved from the University of Bonn at home near the University of Berlin at home, which meant that they were to be loyal to each other for a long time. In Berlin, because of the feelings of the mind and "love" and the love and the suspense and anxiety, once influenced the Marx wholeheartedly into learning. He had told his father frankly that he had "fallen into the real tranquility" because he was far from the Moose Valley and was far from his "infinite beauty of Jenny". Troubled him is not a guessing heart, because he had never had the slightest doubt on the love of Jenny, but because of the thought of her and long years in the long years of separation, so that he felt very heavy mood.
So, 18-year-old Marx wrote writing poetry, poems to express their feelings and feelings. Most of Marx's poems are singing Yanni and pouring himself into her, but there are many of them that express their own thoughts and aspirations and desire to make a difference.
On April 15, 1841, Marx received a Ph.D. degree in advance. Young philosopher had just arrived in Trill, hastened to his most beloved home, the doctoral thesis personally sent to the hands of Jenny's father. Yan Ni and Marx after years of separation, had intended to immediately get married. But there is a doctoral thesis and can not be used as a basis for subsistence, so he and Yanni had to cancel the idea of marriage, continue to wait. Beginning in April 1842, Marx began writing for the "Rheinische Zeitung". In October 1842, the shareholders of the Rheinland newspaper appointed Marx as editor, and in March 1843, Marx was forced to withdraw from the editorial board of the Rheinburger. And then with Arnold Luger in consultation with the work on the joint publication of the plan. Then on June 19, 1843 he went to Croznach (Yanni after her father died in March 1842 and his mother moved to this place), and waited for him for seven years, was born 1814 born in the German aristocratic (Baron) family of Jenny von Westphalia married. From their private agreement to life together, Yanni waited for a long seven years. In the past seven years, in addition to her had a few times with the fiance of Marx had a few times together, only from the distant with their thoughts and letters to accompany him. She wrote in a letter to Marx: "How brilliant is your image in front of me, how magnificent it is! How far is it from my heart that you can always be by my side, my heart, How is the joy of joy for your beating, my heart, what is anxious to follow you on the way you follow ... ... everywhere I am with you, walking in front of you, but also with you I hope that I can fill the road where you are going, and clear all the obstacles that will stop you from moving forward. "At the same time, she has to struggle with her aristocratic relatives.
After the wedding, Marx and Jenny then set off a short wedding trip. In the autumn of 1843, the young Marx and his wife set foot on the exile journey to Paris. During this period he proceeded to study political economy, the French social movement and the French history, and eventually led to its becoming a communist.
At the end of October 1843, Marx and Yanni came to Paris together, and they came to Luga for two months earlier to organize and publish the magazine "German and French Yearbook". At this point, they opened a life full of hardship and self-sacrifice.
Because of Marx's outstanding contribution to the cause of communism and to the landlords and bourgeoisians ruthlessly expose and criticize, so that all the conservative forces to exclude him, expelled him. He had to carry a small home around the transfer of their difficulties sometimes difficult to imagine the point of life. At the end of March 1850, with the death of London in London, Jenny wrote a letter to a friend Joseph Weiderme, depicting her life at that time: "Because here the nurse is too high wages, although I often have a bad chest , But still their own children to feed the poor children from my body sucked so much sadness and anxiety, so he has been frail, day and night to endure severe pain.He has been born since the night, Can fall asleep for two or three hours, and recently with violent ventilation, so the child struggles all day on the death line, because of these pains, he desperately sucked milk, so that my breasts were injured and cracked; blood often flow One day, I was holding him sitting, suddenly the female landlord came, I paid her five pounds of arrears, but we have no money at hand.Then came the two bailiffs, Will be my meager home - bed clothes and so on - and even my poor children's cradle and the better toys are seized. They threatened me to say two hours later to all West and I have to sleep with the shivering children sleep light board. "Marx and Yanni symbiotic four women and two children, for the above reasons, only three daughters (ie eldest daughter Jenny Marx, second daughter Laura Marx, Three daughter Elena Marx) grew up [at that time thanks to Helen de Mute Lin Heng, Yanni if there is no such a loyal assistant, it is difficult to imagine her and her children later how to go down] The
In this situation, Yan Ni is still deeply in love with Marx. In addition to her mother and housewife's responsibility, in addition to worry about the daily life, but also take on a lot of other work. Yanni is an indispensable secretary to Marx, and almost all manuscripts of Marx - most of which are hard to recognize - must be clearly written by her before being sent to a printing or publishing house.
And publishers and editorial office negotiations, some cumbersome procedures, it is difficult to deal with the affairs, must write the situation, many by her agent. Marx was not the kind of person who was easily present in his mouth, but when Yanni left him for a few months because of his mother's death, he wrote in her letter: "Deep passion Because of the close proximity of its object The performance of the daily habits, and in the next resort under the influence of magic will grow up and re-have its inherent strength of my love is the case.As long as we are forced for the space, I immediately understand that time in my Love is like a sun and rain in the plant - to grow.
I love you, as long as you stay away from me, it will show its true colors, like a giant face. In this love focused on all my energy and all the feelings. ... ... if I can put your gentle and pure heart close to his heart, I will be silent, not for a cry. I can not kiss you with lips, but have to resort to the text, to the text to convey the kiss. "
The love of Marx and Jenny's dusk is more intense. 1880, may suffer from liver cancer, she with amazing restraint ability, endured great pain. In this scared of the years, Marx took care of his wife, not left or right in order to make her happy, Marx in 1881 in July and August, accompanied her to France to see the eldest daughter and a few grandson. In the fall of 1881, due to anxious and insomnia, excessive physical exertion, Marx was ill. He is suffering from pneumonia, life is dangerous, but he still can not forget the yanni. Their little daughter talked about her parents' life, "I will never forget the scene of the morning." He felt that he was much better and had gone to the mother's room. Young people, like a pair of young men and women who are beginning to live together, are not like a sick man and a dying old woman, unlike a man who is about to farewell.
December 2, 1881, Yan Ni sleepy. This is the biggest blow that Marx has never suffered. On the day of his death, Engels said: "Moore (from India, who describes the dark skin) is also dead." In the next few months, he accepted the doctor's advice, to the mild climate to rest. But no matter where they can not forget Yan Ni, could not stop grief. He wrote to the best friend, "By the way, you know that few people are more disgusted than I am sad, but if I do not admit that I miss my wife at all times - she is the best of my life Everything is inseparable - that 's how I'm lying. "How awesome these words are.
January 11, 1883, came the sudden death of the eldest daughter of the bad news, Marx's condition increased. At noon on March 14, 1883, Marx resigned peacefully. On March 17, 1883, Marx was buried next to the grave of Haget's Cemetery, Jenny.
In 1844 September, Engels visited Paris, the two sides began to study the scientific socialism, and formed a deep friendship. Marx wrote the "Economic Philosophy Manuscript", the manuscript until 1933 was discovered and published, known as the "1844 economic philosophy manuscript." In 1845, Marx participated in the preparation of "forward magazine", in which the authoritarianism of Germany made a sharp criticism. The Prussian government was very dissatisfied and asked the French government to expel Marx. In the autumn of the same year, Marx was beaten by the French government rogue, deported, forced to come to Brussels, Belgium. In December 1845, Marx declared his departure from Prussian nationality.
And then Engels completed with the "German ideology." The book criticizes Hegel's dialectics and analyzes the incompleteness of Feuerbach materialism, which for the first time systematically expounded the historical materialism they founded and made clear that the proletariat seized power The historical task laid the initial theoretical foundation for socialism from fantasy to science. At the beginning of 1846, Marx and Engels established the Brussels Communist Communications Commission. In 1847, Marx and Engels were invited to the righteous alliance. In June 1847, the reorganization of the alliance and renamed the communist alliance, Marx and Engels drafted the alliance program "Communist Manifesto." Since then the revolution of 1848 swept through Europe, also spread to Belgium. In March 1848, Marx was expelled by the Belgian authorities. At the invitation of the French new government, the Marxist couple returned to Paris, France, Engels arrived in Paris.
In April 1848, under the auspices of the German proletariat, Marx and Engels returned to Prussia Cologne and founded the "New Rheinische Zeitung". Followed by almost all editors or judicial arrests, or deportation. On May 16, 1849, Marx received a deportation order from the Prussian authorities. May 19, published in the red ink published "New Rheinische" the last one No. 301 published. In early June, Marx came to Paris. He was forced to choose or be imprisoned in Brittany, France, or was forced to expel again. In August, Marx was expelled from the French government to London, England. From the Prussian stationed in the British spy report that Marx seems to never scratch the beard, Marx is still in the UK by the Prussian government to monitor.
In London, Marx spent the most difficult day of his life. In five years, Marx because of economic and debt problems, mental anxiety, suffering from the poor mood of the disease, four children in three deaths. But during this period, Marx wrote his most important work - "Capital" (Volume 1). Marx is thought to be rich, economically poor and poor, and the great economist who has a thorough study of the capitalist economy is itself poor, and his life is almost in poverty. Marx did not have a fixed job, and the family's economic origins was mainly due to his extremely unstable and extremely meager royalties, coupled with the persecution and blockade of the bourgeoisie, which had always plagued the Marxist family with hunger and survival. To death. In the life of the displaced, he is often empty, clean clothes, struggling in the dilemma of the struggle. If not Engels in economic long-term selfless assistance, Marx can not engage in leading the international proletarian movement and concentrate on theoretical creation.
From the letter to Engels on February 27, 1852, we saw the plight of the world famous theorist, Marx wrote: "A week I have reached the point of great pain: because the coat into the pawn shop, I can not And then go out, because not to credit, I can not eat meat. "Soon wrote to Engels talked:" My wife is sick, little Yanni disease, Linheng suffering from a nerve heat, the doctor I can not please , And now can not please, because there is no money to buy medicine. Eight to ten days since the home to eat bread and potatoes, whether today can get these, but also a problem. "Hungry poverty and housework trivia, troubled Marx, he Feeling angry and irritable, unable to concentrate and wisdom to carry out theoretical creation. On the plight of Marx, Engels as their own difficulties. "I will send you five pounds in early February," he wrote in a letter to Marx. "You can receive this number every month, even if I do not have a debt to the new year." ... of course, you do not because I promised to pay 5 pounds a month in the difficult time no longer write to me to ask for money, because as long as possible, I must do so. "At this time Engels in the door - Engels The company is just an ordinary small clerk, the income is very low.
Engels later made the company's care, the monthly salary has improved. From 1860 onwards, the support of Marx increased to 10 pounds per month, but also often "other" to give some funding. From 1851 to 1869, Marx received a total of £ 3121 remittances of Engels. For Engels at the time, it was a matter of course. It is precisely because of the generosity of Engels, so that Marx relentlessly survived, to be engaged in long-term scientific writings, writing for the "capital" for extensive and in-depth economic research. Just as Lenin said: "If not Engels sacrificed himself and continue to give funding, Marx not only can not be written as" capital "and is bound to die from poverty." Engels's selfless dedication, Marx was very moved, and very disturbed, in 1867 Wrote to Engels' letter: "frankly told you that my conscience is often as heavy as the dream of the devil, because your excellence is mainly for me to waste in business, only to let them deserted, and But also to share all my trivial worries. "This is the words of Marx's heart. The concern of Marx and his family life, Engels is meticulous. Marx's life is suffering from hardships, whenever Marx suffered setbacks and blows, thoughts and feelings with grief and depression, Engels always think of ways to soothe, he has become a Marx to avoid the storm of life in the harbor, Marx arrived in this harbor, Quiet and happy. Poverty and suffering have claimed the four children of Marx.
In April 1855, Marx's favorite son, Edgar, died, which gave Marx a heavy blow, and he felt he could not support it. In the letter to Engels, Marx talked about the infinite sadness: "In these days, I have been able to bear all this terrible pain, because always miss you, miss your friendship, always hope that the two of us also To make some meaningful things together in the world. "Engels brought the couple to Manchester, in Engels's careful arrangements and care, the Marx and the couple spent the most difficult moments of life. Engels is a "supernumerary" member of Marx's house, and every time he goes to Marx's house, the whole family is as happy as the holidays, and Marx's daughters see Engels as "the second father". Of course, the Marx family of Engels on the health concerns, it is worrying. In 1857 July, when Engels was sick, Marx wrote a letter of comfort: "Dear Engels, you can believe that no matter how unfortunate we are, my wife and I are more concerned about your recent health situation than our own. "Two old comrades in the work of different places, often communicate with each other ideas, without reservation to talk about personal life and political life in the emotions, in their more than 1,000 communications, we see the two comrades Deep Yi Benedict, a few days can not get each other letters, each other to each other up. In his letter to Engels, Marx wrote, "Dear Engels, are you crying or laughing, sleeping or awake? In the last three weeks, I sent a variety of letters to Manchester, but Did not receive a reply, but I believe are sent to. "Similarly, if you can not hear a few days of Marx's audio, Engels will be issued" even the gun "like questioning" old Moore, old Moore, big beard old Do you have anything to do? What are you doing, what are you doing? Are you sick or falling into the abyss of your political economy? "They are doing nothing Said, nothing to talk about. And the friendship between Engels, Marx made a high degree of evaluation, February 20, 1866 to Engels in the letter said: "This friendship between us is how happy, you have to know that I am any relationship Have not made such a high evaluation. "
Engels and Marx's noble friendship, for the human to establish a brilliant example, the two great great friendship to tell the world: based on common faith and the pursuit of the foundation of friendship, is evergreen, unbreakable.
Old age and death
September 28, 1864, Marx participated in the first international congress, was elected to the leadership committee. He drafted the Declaration on the Establishment of the International, the Provisional Constitution and other important documents. September 14, 1867, "Capital" first volume published. After the two volumes for the death of Marx, by Engels finishing its legacy, respectively, in 1885, published in 1894. In October 1870 Marx reunited with Engels in London. As many countries were expelled and exiled everywhere, he claimed to be "the world's citizens".
On December 2, 1881, Yanni Marx died. March 14, 1883 at 2:33 pm, the great thinker of Marx died in London, at the age of 65 years old. And later with Yanni buried in the northern suburbs of London Haget cemetery. Engels published the tomb speech, about 20 people attended the funeral.